First, the violation of the treaty by Quraysh was so glaring that there was absolutely no doubt that there had been a breach and they themselves confessed that the treaty had come to an end. That is why they sent Abu Sufyan to al‐ knew the treaty had come to an end, it does not imply that an exception to the principle is justifiable only if those who violate the treaty know it and confess it. The exception is justifiable if the violation is quite clear to  everybody and beyond doubt. Second, after the violation of the treaty, the Noble Prophet peace be and blessings upon him did not indicate in any way whatever by word or by deed or by implication that in spite of the violation of the treaty by them he regarded the treaty to be still in force; nor did he continue such relations with them as might indicate the same. All the traditions show that he rejected the offer of renewal of the treaty made by Abu Sufyan.

Third, he openly took military action against the Quraysh and did nothing at all to show an outward display of peace, while harboring secret intentions of war.ʺ

Thus the Prophet set an example by his own action that all treaties are to be observed and respected until violated by the enemy. In that case, it is for the Muslim State to negotiate a new treaty, or take other necessary steps according to the nature of the situation. Thus this verse also outlines the general principles which govern foreign policy in the Islamic state.


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