In the name of Allaah, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful. Blessings and peace be upon the noblest of the Messengers, our Master Muhammad.

In the previous episode, we have touched upon some of the etiquette and guidelines that Muslim individual has to adopt while conducting his financial and commercial transactions. In this episode, we will review some of them in the following points:

Eighteenth, amongst the most important guidelines of the financial transactions is keeping away from the prohibited forms of trade transactions in the religion of Allaah The Almighty. They are actually many. They are not become prohibited except due to their bad effects such as disobedience, ignorance, causing harms, consuming the properties of people unjustly. Amongst such prohibited trade transactions are:

Firstly, trade transactions are not to be concluded in a time or a place in which transactions are prohibited. As for the time in which trade transactions are prohibited is doing them after the second call of Jumu‘ah (i.e. Friday Prayer) for Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {O you who have believed, when [the Athaan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu‘ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allaah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew} [Quran 62: 9].

Muslim scholars have stated that if trade transactions are concluded after the call of Friday prayer, then they will be void and invalid.

The same ruling applies to the buying and selling if they prevent fulfilling the acts of worship such as the trader becomes busy with buying and selling and not offering prayer in congregation in the mosque in a way he missed the prayer or some of it. Therefore, Allaah The Almighty has praised those whom their trade never diverts them from offering prayers in their due times.

As for the place in which trade transactions are prohibited to be concluded, it is the Masjids (i.e. mosques) for the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “If you see anyone buying and selling inside the mosque, say, ‘La raddaha Allaahu ‘Alaika (May Allaah not cause your trade to be profitable), for mosques are not built for this purpose.”

In another Hadeeth, the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Keep your infants, your insane and your selling and buying from your mosques.” That is because the purpose of Masjids is to worship Allaah The Almighty therein. Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {And [He revealed] that the Masjids are for Allaah, so do not invoke with Allaah anyone.} [Quran 72: 18].

Secondly, selling the prohibited commodity. When Allaah The Almighty prohibits something, He, Exalted be He, then prohibits its price. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullaah, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, in the year of the Conquest of Makkah, saying, “Allaah and His Messenger made illegal the trade of alcohol, dead animals, pigs and idols.” The people asked, “O Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him! What about the fat of dead animals, for it was used for greasing the boats and the hides; and people use it for lights?” He, peace and blessing be upon him, said, “No, it is illegal.” Allah's Messenger, peace and blessing be upon him, further said, “May Allaah curse the Jews, for Allaah made the fat (of animals) illegal for them, yet they melted the fat and sold it and ate its price.” [Reported by the Seven collectors of Hadeeth].

It was narrated that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, also said: “Allaah forbade wine and the price paid for it, and forbade dead meat and the price paid for it, and forbade swine and the price paid for it.” [Reported by Abu Daawood with a Hasan (good) Isnaad (i.e. chain of narrators)].

Moreover, it was narrated that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Allaah has cursed alcohol, the one who squeezes (the grapes etc), the one for whom it is squeezed, the one who sells it, the one who buys it, the one who drinks it, the one who eats its price, the one who carries it, the one to whom it is carried and the one who pours it.” [Reported by At-Tirmithi, Ibn Maajah and others].

Prohibited matters that are not allowed to be sold or bought include intoxicants and their different forms, regardless of their names and their types of drinks, foods, pills or the like, drugs and their different forms which are the strongest form of intoxicants. Such prohibited things also include smoke for it causes well known harms for the health, intellect, finance, and religion. They also include selling and buying the prohibited musical instruments, regardless of their types and forms. The same ruling applies to selling the prohibited images, where the Prophet, peace and blessing be upon him, said: “Those who make images will be most severely punished on the Day of Resurrection.” Our contemporary Muslim scholars stated that this include selling magazines that contain immoral or tempting images for they cause temptation and propagate Fitnah (unlawful sexual activity), besides they are images. They often contain things propagating sex, suspicions in one’s belief or conduct. This also includes immoral and indecent movies, serials, and encouraging fornication and sinning. It should be known that selling of all the prohibited commodities stated before or which are not stated are prohibited and their prices are prohibited, gains made from them are evil for all what is nourished on prohibited things, the Fire is more fitting for it.

Thirdly, amongst the other forms of prohibited trade transactions is selling something lawful to be used in a prohibited matter. If the seller knows that the buyer will use the sold commodity in a prohibited matter, then it is not permissible for him to sell him this com modity, although selling it is originally lawful, because this is a form of cooperating in sin and aggression and Allaah The Almighty Says (what means): {…And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression… } [Quran 5: 2].         

Muslim scholars have given example for this case with selling grapes or dates for the one who uses them for making intoxicants or selling weapon during the time of Fitnah (i.e. killing) or in case the ruler prevented it for a certain interest, or for a highwayman or the like.

Muslim individual has to avoid such prohibited forms of trade transactions and to keep completely away from them so that he may not do something prohibited. We ask Allaah to show us the truth as truth and enable us to follow it, and to show us falsehood as false and enable us to avoid it.    



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